From the standpoint of the present, it is believed that psychology is a science that studies the spectrum of ways, manners, genres, through which a person constructs the meanings of experiencing himself and reality, and the person himself is denoted in science by the concepts of "mover", "actor", "creator".
Such a change in the vector of analysis of the object of psychology was determined by the principles of constructivism and development, which directed its knowledge to the plane of changes, transformations, evolution of the personality. Fundamental in this regard, according to Erik Erikson, are two balancing foundations of "to be" and "to act", which are mainly caused by unconscious and conscious knowledge, respectively. While the idea of unconscious and conscious human knowledge belongs to Robert Kegan.
Therefore, in modern democracy, a person is mentally required to be the author of his or her experiences, the architect of feelings, the one who can initiate new ideas, theories, projects. And modern psychology, for its part, is called upon to make such contributions to a person that would help him achieve the social development of the era and his own maturity.
- What is the difference between the work of a psychologist, psychotherapist and psychiatrist?
Today, given the great interest of people, psychological science is becoming increasingly popular. But still many people confuse the concepts of "psychologist", "psychotherapist" and "psychiatrist". This is due to the fact that ordinary citizens have a vague idea of the peculiarities of the work of these specialists.
A psychiatrist is, first of all, a doctor-specialist in the field of diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses, who uses medications, i.e. drugs during treatment. The range of competence of a psychiatrist is quite wide - it includes severe mental illnesses, neuroses and depression.
The field of activity of a psychotherapist is lighter disorders, as well as conditions on the verge of health and disease. That is, when a person feels very bad, but it cannot be called a disease. The main means of psychotherapist's activity are words and conversation.
A psychologist is a specialist who has received psychological education. The scope of his knowledge is psychological counseling of HEALTHY people. A psychologist is consulted if there are difficulties: in communication, in decision-making, in relationships; in case of stress and psychological trauma: divorce, death of loved ones, physical or emotional violence.